Tag Archives: packing for international transport

Maritime transport: Practical guide to shipment of goods

Maritime transport is the backbone of international trade. In fact, in Spain it accounts for around 80% of imports and approximately 50% of exports.

Complying with the specifications of maritime shipments is crucial to ensure that our merchandise arrives at its destination in a timely manner. Therefore, if your company is involved in exporting or is considering doing so, it is important to understand the factors that affect ocean shipments and what types of packaging are most suitable for this type of transport.

 

Factors that condition maritime transport

One of the advantages of maritime transport is its versatility, since it adapts to any type of cargo. However, there are issues that must be taken into account when preparing our shipments:

Maritime transport Practical guide to shipment of goods

Type of container:

Most of the international transport of dry goods travels by container. Depending on the cargo, a type of container will be chosen and also whether it will occupy a full container (Full Container Load or FCL) or share space with goods from other exporters (Less Than Container or LCL).

Sudden abrupt movement:

Containers may experience sudden movements during handling and due to sea conditions, which may affect the stability of the cargo.

Temperature:

Temperature changes may occur during voyages, affecting the cargo.

Humidity and salinity:

Sea salt and humidity can cause the cargo to rust.

How to protect the goods for maritime transport?

Considering the peculiarities of maritime transport, it is time to analyze which packaging will help us to avoid damage or loss, and ensure a correct transport of the cargo from its origin to its destination.

 

  1. Fastening systems

For sensitive cargo, such as electronic equipment or chemical products, it is important to use securing systems to immobilize and secure the cargo inside the container.

In this regard, airbags are one of the most effective devices. These airbags are placed between the packages and prevent their movement. They are reusable and adapt to the irregularities of the cargo.

Maritime transport Practical guide to shipment of goods. Airbags
Maritime transport Practical guide to shipment of goods
Maritime transport Practical guide to shipment of goods

2. Insulating systems

For goods sensitive to humidity and salinity, such as metal parts without surface treatment or electrical equipment, insulating systems can be used to keep the atmosphere as neutral as possible during transport.

Among the isothermal insulating systems, heat-sealable bags stand out. They are a product widely used in packaging to prevent corrosion, especially in the case of metal and electronic devices. As a complement, dehydration systems such as desiccant salts are used to absorb moisture from the internal air volume. Moisture detectors will indicate whether the desiccant salts have reached their absorption capacity limit.

Maritime transport Practical guide to shipment of goods

We also manufacture customized heat sealable bags; you can see the video here:

 

Shrink-wrapped plastic is used for large-volume cargo or machinery. This type of plastic creates a protective film against adverse weather conditions (UV rays, rain, wind).

Maritime transport Practical guide to shipment of goods

3. Phytosanitary certification and sealing ISPM-15

In international transport, all packaging with wood as raw material must bear the corresponding marking, complying with the International Standard on Phytosanitary Measures ISPM-15. This regulation serves to prevent the spread of pests.

However, the certificate will depend on the geographical location to which the cargo is destined and whether it is required by the plant protection agency of the destination country. For example, for exports to European Union countries the standard is not mandatory, but in certain cases they may request the ISPM-15 marking.

Among wooden packaging, a very widespread solution for maritime shipments is the Clipping Crate ®. This is a reusable, economical, resistant box with an innovative design. It is equipped with a closing system using galvanized zinc clips or staples, which provide strength and flexibility. In this way, the box can be assembled and disassembled by a single person without the use of tools. A very useful system that facilitates customs inspection.

Maritime transport Practical guide to shipment of goods

If you have any questions about packaging and maritime transport of goods, do not hesitate to contact us.

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Oversized Packaging

Any goods can be moved from one side of the world to the other by sea, air or road. However, there are loads that, due to their volume or dimensions, require special packaging and modes of transport to be able to do so.

In this post we will talk about packaging for large loads, or also known as packaging for large dimensions or packaging for oversized cargo.

 

What is oversized cargo?

We refer to oversized cargo when, due to its size or tonnage, it cannot be transported in a conventional way, being necessary to resort to specially designed and manufactured solutions to be able to handle it safely.

For example, industrial machinery such as large engines, construction materials such as beams or pipes, as well as all types of packaging for aeronautical, automotive or renewable energy parts such as wind blades or solar panels.

Today, most of the companies in the industrial sector that operate at an international level need a goods protection service for large parts or loads.

Oversized Packaging

Packaging for oversized cargoes – Main considerations

In most cases, it must be approved for export, which means that it has to comply with ISPM-15 certification to avoid any problems at customs.

In addition, it must be reinforced to efficiently support the weight, and if we are talking about bulky goods, it may require a special platform to facilitate its movement.

Oversized Packaging

Phases when designing an oversized package

The first step is to conduct a preliminary study on the needs of the cargo: weight, size or other requirements. From production to delivery, each step is carefully planned and comprehensively oriented.

Our technical department develops the best type of protection taking into account factors such as packaging efficiency, use of sustainable materials and space optimization during transport, all from the best technical and economical point of view.

Mechanical considerations

At 360 Eco Packaging we are manufacturers, which allows us to offer ad-hoc packaging according to the needs of our customers.

The designs not only take into account the shape and size of the cargo, but also the use of products approved for storage and lashing in sea containers and trailers.

These are packaging aids, such as heat-sealable plastic and shrink-wrapped plastic, which act as reinforcement against external agents to protect items susceptible to damage by external agents, as well as retention systems to stabilize it, even if it has suffered some kind of impact during the logistics process.

Oversized Packaging

Economic Considerations

We also pay attention to the economic factor. We know that an excess of material and accessories could increase the cost associated with the process. Therefore, the custom design must be economically viable for the customer without compromising cargo safety.

 

Production and delivery

If necessary, we can carry out packaging of the goods at the customer’s facilities.

Please contact us without any commitment.

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Main packaging certifications

Certifications are key indicators in any activity. Through these accreditations, packaging manufacturers can demonstrate that their products or services comply with the regulations required by transport agreements, and at the same time meet high standards of safety, quality or environmental responsibility. They are, therefore, a guarantee of how we do things.

ISO 9001 certification is one of the most widely implemented standards among companies. In our case, this seal accredits the quality of our processes for the design and manufacture of industrial packaging.

In the packaging field there are other valuable rules and certifications that we highlight below:

Phytosanitary-certified wood packaging material

The International Standard for Phytosanitary Measures ISPM-15 was created by FAO to regulate wood packaging in international trade in order to reduce the risk of introduction and spread of pests.

The ISPM 15 seal is based on a heat treatment that consists of the wood reaching 56 ºC in its core for at least 30 continuous minutes.

       Once the wood has been treated, the mark must be visible on at least two opposite sides of the wood.

The ISPM-15 standard affects packaging made wholly or partially from raw wood, such as pallets, crates, crates, crates, crates, dunnage, pallets, cable drums and reels. Plywood is excluded.

To obtain the ISPM-15 label, it is necessary to be registered in the national system and to pass the required annual audits, through the control of the traceability of the manufactured elements.

The issuance of a certificate will only be necessary if required by the phytosanitary protection agencies of the destination countries.

ISPM15

Certified Dangerous Goods Packaging

Dangerous goods are considered to be solid, liquid or powdered products that represent a risk to the safety and health of people or the environment.

The transport of dangerous goods requires specific approved packaging, with its corresponding certificate in accordance with the regulations of each mode of transport. The regulation par excellence in the transport of dangerous goods by road is the ADR (European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road).

Compliance is also mandatory:

  • Rail RID (Regulations concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Rail).
  • Air transport IATA (International Air Transport Association).
  • Maritime transport IMDG (International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code).

The UN has established a universal system of classification, packaging, marking and labeling of the different dangerous goods valid for all modes of transport.

Dangerous goods packaging can be made of plastic, cardboard or metal, but must always be properly labeled. In addition to the labeling required for each type of goods, according to its classification in the ADR, each package must show a UN number, among other data such as the manufacturer’s code, type of box, password, country and year of manufacture.

The ADR defines packing instructions for each UN number, according to which the physical-chemical specifications that the packaging must meet for a given good will be detailed.

Packaging with PEFC / FSC® certification

Nowadays, it is impossible to talk about quality without taking environmental criteria into account. PEFC and FSC® chain-of-custody certification guarantees good practices along the entire wood value chain.

PEFC-certified pallets, wooden crates and cardboard boxes use raw material from sustainable logging, recycled material or both. Choosing PEFC / FSC® certified packaging means promoting a responsible supply chain, contributing to sustainable forest management and the well-being of forest communities.

PEFC
FSC

These seals are also a competitive advantage in markets that require the supply of environmentally responsible materials.

Use certified packaging suppliers that add value to your logistics.

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Safe transport of Lithium Batteries

Our cell phones, electronic devices and electric vehicles are powered by lithium batteries, a source of energy that is increasingly present in our daily lives. 

By their nature, lithium batteries are considered dangerous goods, and as such require approved packaging to avoid potential risks during handling and transport, both for people and the environment. As certified and approved manufacturers of this type of packaging, we want to show in this post the high importance of storage and transport of this type of product.

Lithium battery regulations

All dangerous goods must comply with specific regulations and warnings, and batteries are no exception.

First of all, lithium batteries contain high levels of electrical energy, which makes them prone to overcharging, extreme temperature, short circuit and mechanical damage. Therefore, improper use or storage could lead to fires or explosions such as the one that occurred on the Felicity Ace cargo ship in 2022, with more than 4,000 luxury cars on board.

Therefore, manufacturers and intermediaries must use approved packaging, which complies with the regulations of the chosen means of transport, whether by land, sea or air. That is:

  • Land:

European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road (ADR).

  • By Air:

International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Technical Instructions (TI) for the Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air and the International Air Transport Association (IATA) Dangerous Goods Regulations.

  • By Rail:

International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Rail (RID).

  • By sea:

International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code (IMDG).

lithium batteries

Packaging of lithium batteries

Secondly, there are a number of considerations to take into account when looking for solutions for handling and transporting batteries.

  • Heat resistance: use materials resistant to high temperatures.
  • Insulation: each battery must be individually insulated in its own compartment or container to avoid short circuits and shocks that could damage it.
  • Avoid contact with metals: lithium batteries should not come into contact with metal objects, as this could cause short circuits. They should be separated from each other by non-conductive insulators, such as polyethylene or plastic foams.
  • Hazard statements: use the correct labeling according to the applicable transport regulations.
  • Stability: by means of protection and fastening elements that guarantee their safety. The heavier the battery, the more support it needs.

Identification and labeling of packaging for lithium batteries

The packaging of lithium batteries must also be provided with labels and information warning of the risks of handling and transport:

The class 9 identification label, model 9A, is mandatory.

The UN number, which identifies the material from four digits. The identification codes for the different types of batteries are:

Lithium-ion batteries UN-3480.

Lithium-ion batteries UN-3481 included or packaged in a device.

Lithium metal batteries UN-3090.

Lithium metal batteries contained or packaged in a device UN-3091.

The homologation password indicating the material, country, year of manufacture and manufacturer’s code.

In conclusion, please consult here without obligation our approved solutions for the storage of lithium batteries, individual or integrated in equipment, for each mode of transport.

 

Also in our usual communication channels: info@360ecopackaging.com and on the phone (+34) 699 239 392

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How Just in Case logistics Works

Just in Case logistics (JIC) is an inventory management methodology that consists of having enough product in stock at all times.

Compared to Just-In-Time logistics, where products are manufactured and stored on demand, Just-In-Case logistics is based on having more inventory than necessary. In this way, the company ensures that products are always available to be able to cope with increased demand or any type of eventuality.

This “just in case” management will imply, among other things, a greater investment in warehousing.

In which sectors and companies is Just in case logistics used?

The Just in case methodology is usually used in sectors with volatile demand, and in particular, in those that manufacture products with a long shelf life. For example, pharmaceuticals, where it is important to have availability of medicines and where stock-outs can have serious consequences.

In recent years, however, due to pandemics, war and the materials crisis that have strained supply chains, companies have turned to this strategy in order to maintain supply in all sectors.

How Just in Case logistics Works

What are the advantages of just-in-case logistics for companies?

From an inventory management point of view, one of the main advantages of just-in-case logistics is that it allows for greater flexibility. That is, by having a larger volume of products than necessary, companies can respond quickly to changes in demand without fear of running out of stock.

On the other hand, although it may seem that companies incur higher costs with this type of stockpiling, the truth is that this method can generate considerable savings in the long term. 

First, by buying in larger volumes, they benefit from better prices. In addition, they have sufficient stock to ensure sales and respond to customers more efficiently than their competitors.

How Just in Case logistics Works

Just in case logistics packaging

More stock, more storage. For this reason, the unitization of cargo is one of the pillars of just-in-case logistics. Through palletizing, we manage to group and arrange the goods in the warehouse in higher loading units. In this way, we make maximum use of space.

How Just in Case logistics Works

In addition, since the products are palletized and sorted, they are kept in perfect condition while they remain in the warehouse for a long time, they can be located more quickly and the loading and unloading task is more agile.

Finally, the EPAL Euro pallet is a key element in this process. Thanks to its standard dimensions of 800 mm x 1,200 mm, the EPAL europallet can be adapted both to the dimensions of transport logistics (trucks and railroad wagons) and to those required in intralogistics (lifting, transfer on conveyor belts, handling of cardboard and wood packaging, etc.).

In short, packaging must meet the requirements of today’s supply chains. At 360 Eco Packaging we can help you find the best storage solution for your just-in-case operations.

How Just in Case logistics Works

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Types of warehouses and their characteristics

One of the objectives of logistics is the optimal use of the warehouse as well as the incoming and outgoing goods operations carried out in it.

There are many types of warehouses. Each has its own logistics requirements. The product they house, the location, functionality or handling technology are some of the criteria by which we can classify the different types of warehouses.

In a company there can be one or several types: raw materials, central, spare parts, etc. In this post we will focus on the most common types of warehouses, according to their location and logistic activity.

Warehouses by logistics activity

Production warehouse

This is the warehouse where the raw materials, parts or components required in the manufacturing processes are stored. The function of the production warehouse is to ensure that the manufacturing lines run without interruption, with no shortage of supplies. For this reason, many logistics supply centers are located close to factories.

Types of warehouses and their characteristics

Central warehouse

This is where finished products from one or more industrial processes are stored. It is usually located near the manufacturing site.

The central warehouse also acts as a distribution center, supplying other regional or local warehouses that carry out the final distribution to the consumer or point of sale. From the central warehouse, the product is conditioned for the next step in the distribution chain.

Types of warehouses and their characteristics

Distribution warehouse

The distribution or supply warehouse is responsible for receiving the goods from the production center and then sending them to the end customer. It usually covers a specific geographical area and is located close to the point of consumption.

Its purpose is to guarantee supply and meet product delivery times. It is a warehouse with a high turnover of goods.

Types of warehouses and their characteristics

Transit Warehouse

Occasionally, an interim storage point is required between the central and regional warehouse. The transit warehouse functions as an interim warehouse for goods, since its purpose is to expedite deliveries or to facilitate the grouping of goods to be shipped to the same destination.

Here the stock is not stored; the flow of receipts and dispatches is continuous. This type of warehouse is often used for e-commerce logistics.

Types of warehouses and their characteristics

Temporary warehouse

Used to store stock of products for seasonal consumption, in order to meet peaks in demand.

 

Other types of warehouses

We have reviewed the most common warehouses, but we can find other classifications of warehouse, according to:

  • The building:

Open-air or outdoor warehouse and covered or indoor warehouse.

  • The type of product:

Raw materials warehouse, semi-finished products and finished products warehouse, spare parts and/or accessories warehouse, and containers and packaging warehouse, where the packaging of the final products is kept.

  • Level of mechanization:

Conventional warehouses, with a low level of automation or the so-called intelligent warehouses, with a high degree of automation.

Types of warehouses and their characteristics

What type of warehouse does your company use?

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Securing loads with Airbags

When determining the right packaging, many aspects must be taken into account. One of them is the fixation and adjustment of loads. For this purpose, multiple systems and pneumatic elements are used to ensure that our shipment arrives in optimal conditions.

One of the most commonly used are dunnage bags or airbags for packaging.

Securing loads with Airbags

What are packaging airbags?

Packaging airbags, dunnage bags or inflatable bags are used to protect goods during transport. Their function is to fill the empty spaces between the cargo or between the cargo and the walls of the transport unit, keeping it immobile in order to reduce the possibility of damage during transport.

These bags are very easy to use. They are filled with air through a valve to the required pressure. Airbags are available in different sizes, depending on the use and load.

Securing loads with Airbags

Which airbag do I need to protect my cargo?

Airbags can be used in land, sea or rail transport. To know what type of airbag we will need, the first thing we must know is the volume and weight of the cargo to be transported (to define the working pressure of the airbag), as well as the operating time of this airbag. Once these parameters have been set, we will check the manufacturer’s technical data sheet to see if it adapts to our needs.

Most manufacturers comply with the AAR Bulletin No. 9 (Association of American Railroads), the most widespread international standard, which classifies these pneumatic elements into 5 levels, according to the type of transport and the operating pressure.

Securing loads with Airbags

As shown in the table, the different types of transport are classified according to the working pressure. This is because this standard contemplates pressure tests after 19 days, allowing a load loss of no more than 1psi. In other words, for long transports we must generally use level 2 airbags or higher (more working pressure).

Once we have defined the type of air bag we need, we will have to design a system of loads as homogeneous as possible, using these elements to adjust the loads.

To do this, we can take into account the guidelines of the CTU 2014 code, which, among other issues, details the different misuses that can occur when applying this system.

Securing loads with Airbags

Types of airbags and characteristics

They can be made of different materials, depending on their resistance to external agents in case of possible rupture.

There are basically two types, depending on the material they are made of:

  • Raffia:

These are bags or sacks consisting of an inner layer of polyethylene and a top layer of raffia, a type of elastic fabric widely used for packaging due to its resistance.

  • Kraft paper:

They have an inner layer of polyethylene and a top layer of Kraft paper reinforced with polypropylene to prevent tearing.

In both cases, they are durable, reusable and waterproof, providing an efficient solution to protect cargo during transportation.

 

If you need advice, consult a reliable supplier to help you choose the best option.

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What is Just in Time logistics?

The world is constantly evolving. The changes that are taking place have an impact on supply chains. Industrial packaging manufacturers have to respond to the challenges posed by different logistical operations, however complex they may be, in times of greater or lesser uncertainty.

One of them is Just In Time manufacturing, which orients production to demand.

What is the Just in Time method?

The Just in Time production method is based on real orders. It consists of producing the exact amount of what is required, in the right place at the right time, without wasting system resources.

Just in Time logistics

Its origin comes from Japan. In the mid-twentieth century, large Japanese companies were looking for more efficient production systems, which in turn would allow them to reduce factory inventory. Toyota was the first company to apply the Just in Time method, under the name of Toyota Production System, in automobile manufacturing plants, with the aim of eliminating from the production process those elements that did not provide real value.

Since then, automotive companies, technology companies, fast food chains around the world and today, e-commerce companies use this model to make their processes more efficient, optimize costs and respond better and faster to customers.

Just in Time logistics

What are the advantages and disadvantages of the Just in Time method in logistics?

  • Zero defects: an error can cause delays and increase stocks.
  • Zero breakdowns: this implies scheduled maintenance of work tools.
  • Zero stocks: this generates storage and space costs.
  • Zero lead times: reducing production cycles reduces waiting times, equipment preparation and transit times.
  • Zero paperwork: reducing bureaucracy to a minimum.

Applying this method provides better management, greater flexibility and savings, but requires millimetric coordination in all the links that make up the supply chain.

Just in Time logistics

Advantages of JIT

  • Reduces inventory levels and costs associated with purchasing and warehousing, since only what is in demand is manufactured.
  • Minimizes losses, obsolete products, expired products or products that lose value when stored, by having a minimum stock.
  • Reduces time and unnecessary trips to locate the merchandise.
  • It favors a closer relationship with suppliers.

 

Disadvantages of JIT

  • Possible delays and lack of supplies.
  • Less access to special prices for small-scale purchases.
  • Increased costs when changing suppliers.
  • Scarce capacity to react to demand peaks.
Just in Time logistics

Packaging for Just in Time logistics

As with all other supplies, packaging in JIT operations must be available when it is needed. Companies specializing in this type of packaging must be able to offer packaging solutions that help simplify operations and speed up delivery times, that are easy to handle and help reduce storage costs.

This logistics requires ergonomic packaging, which allows assembly/disassembly in a very simple and safe way, folding solutions, which facilitate internal movements and save space, as well as customized packaging, which optimizes the logistics process to the maximum.

 

Contact us. At 360 Eco Packaging we can help you find the best packaging or storage solution for your Just in Time operations.

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7 milestones in the history of packaging

Since ancient times man has had the need to protect his belongings, hence the following post on the history of packaging and its evolution.

Over the years the evolution of the history of packaging has been parallel to the economic and social development of the time. As manufacturers of industrial packaging, these are for us the 7 most important milestones in the history of packaging.

1. From clay to wood for transporting wine

In ancient Rome, large clay containers were already used to store and transport wine. The clay amphorae and jars were airtight and protected the wine from oxidation. Upon conquering French lands, the Roman Empire discovered the wooden barrel; an easy-to-handle container, lighter and more consistent than clay for transporting wine from Greece, Gaul and Hispania.

This was the way it was done for centuries until glass arrived. In the 17th century the use of the bottle became widespread. However, wood continued to be a highly valued packaging in the logistics of the wine sector.

7 milestones in the history of packaging

 2. The emergence of corrugated cardboard

The Chinese are considered to be the first to use corrugated cardboard in the 16th century. However, it was the pleats of Victorian fashion in the mid-19th century that led to the development of corrugated cardboard.

In 1856 Healy and Allen patented in England the use of pleated paper as an inner reinforcement for stiff top hats. Years later, the American pharmacist A. Jones came up with the idea of wrapping fries in corrugated cardboard. Jones came up with the idea of wrapping perfume bottles in corrugated paper to protect them from knocks.

In 1874, Oliver Long improved Jones’ patent by adhering the corrugated paper to a flat sheet of paper and then to two flat sheets of paper. Liners were born, the structure of corrugated cardboard that provides the compression and strength of the cardboard boxes we use today.

In 1890 Robert Gair invented the corrugated box and the American Thompson and Norris Co. began manufacturing the first boxes.

Today the cardboard box is the preferred packaging for ecommerce due to its lightness, strength and low cost.

Corrugated cardboard

3. The arrival of the europallet

It was not until World War II that the use of pallets became popular for moving military equipment. Until then, wooden crates, skids or barrels were used to move the goods.

At the end of the war, the first American pallet patents were registered. However, train wagons in Europe had dimensions in which they did not fit well, so it was necessary to reduce them and regulate their manufacture so that they all had the same dimensions and could make better use of space. In the 60’s the Euro pallet was born.

Since 1991 the European Pallet Association (EPAL) issues licenses to manufacturers and under the EPAL seal certifies the quality of the pallet and identifies reliable suppliers.

European Pallets EPAL

4. The collapsible wooden box, a step towards packaging engineering

During World War II, the Allied side had to make a great logistical effort to get weapons, equipment and medical supplies by ship and plane to the places in conflict. One of the biggest challenges was shipping war vehicles.

The Jeep automobile company had designed the “Willys,” an agile and rugged all-terrain vehicle, the forerunner of the 4×4 we know today. For domestic shipments, vehicles were stacked on top of each other on pallets. But shipping them across the ocean required special packaging. And an innovative solution was found: the disassemblable wooden crate.

The “Willys” was stored in pieces and once at destination the crate was disassembled, allowing access to the vehicle and assembly in a matter of minutes.

Today, packaging engineering continues to successfully meet the challenges of the automotive sector.

7 milestones in the history of packaging
7 milestones in the history of packaging

5. The expansion of plastic

The origin of plastic is related to the game of billiards. An American company decided to award 10,000 dollars to whoever could create a material to replace ivory, which was scarce at the time, to manufacture billiard balls. In 1870, the Hyatt brothers chemically modified cellulose to produce celluloid, winning the contest and obtaining the first plastic in history.

In 1907, Baekeland invented Bakelite, the first fully synthetic commercial plastic, described as thermosetting, insulating and resistant to water, acids and moderate heat. In the following decades, new plastics derived from the processing of fossil fuels, such as polyethylene or polyvinyl chloride (PVC), were investigated.

At present, the applications of plastic are infinite, and it is a very common material in the manufacture of returnable containers and packaging for industrial use.

Plastic collapsible crate

6. The box that revolutionized the transport of goods: the sea container.

Since they made the first transatlantic crossing in the mid-twentieth century, sea containers have revolutionized the transport of goods. Before their appearance, ships were loaded manually, which meant long waits in port.

The businessman Malcolm McClean came up with a system whereby cargo could be stacked inside a large metal box and transported by ship or truck. Thus was born the container, which made its first trip in 1956, from New Jersey to Houston.

A decade after its first trip, the ISO (International Standard Organization) developed standards for its international use. Containerization led to a reduction in the cost and time of freight transport, giving way to intermodality.

7 milestones in the history of packaging

7. Ecopackaging and sustainable packaging

In the mid-twentieth century the packaging industry began its development and today continues to evolve.

With self-service, marketing, the computer and the internet, packaging began to spread, becoming a competitive advantage for companies and a lure for the consumer.

 

Foldable wooden crate

Today, the Circular Economy model and the preferences of an increasingly eco-conscious consumer force the industry to look for sustainable packaging solutions, designed from the source to reduce the use of resources and revalue their waste, without forgetting their original purpose: to protect the goods.

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Mechanical Impact Detectors

There are two types of impact detectors: mechanical and electronic.

This time we will focus on mechanical devices, they are the most used and the most affordable due to their simple architecture. They are capable of detecting impacts on one or more axes and there are tared models with different g-force sensitivities.

Mechanical Impact Detectors

Therefore, we can classify these detectors as:

 

One-dimensional

Mechanical detectors that capture accelerations in only one axis (one direction and two directions).

These detectors are the most commonly used, there are sticker type (with adhesive) that are easily anchored to the packaging to be controlled.

Mechanical Impact Detectors

Their placement is generally:

  1. For a box with a side-to-side proportionality of approximately 1:1
Mechanical Impact Detectors

2. For a box with approximate side-to-side ratio > 2:1

Mechanical Impact Detectors

3. The heights “h” at which the indicator should be positioned may vary depending on the load, the g-force and the manufacturer.

Most of these indicators are activated by changing color (red) when the maximum set acceleration has been exceeded, it does not show a history of events, for that an electronic detector would be necessary.

 

Two-dimensional

 

Mechanical detectors that capture accelerations in two axes (two directions with their two senses).

These detectors are capable of detecting impacts in two directions and even show the direction, sense and modulus of the maximum force to which the load was subjected as shown in the above simulation (provided it is within the operating range of the detector).

Mechanical Impact Detectors

Their placement is generally done by means of four screws (per detector) and unlike the one-dimensional ones, their location in the case does not generally interfere in the operation.

There are two main types: magnetic and combined sphere-spring system.

Both are two-dimensional and allow the working accelerations g to be adjusted (depending on their type of construction).

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