Tag Archives: maritime transport

Maritime transport: Practical guide to shipment of goods

Maritime transport is the backbone of international trade. In fact, in Spain it accounts for around 80% of imports and approximately 50% of exports.

Complying with the specifications of maritime shipments is crucial to ensure that our merchandise arrives at its destination in a timely manner. Therefore, if your company is involved in exporting or is considering doing so, it is important to understand the factors that affect ocean shipments and what types of packaging are most suitable for this type of transport.

 

Factors that condition maritime transport

One of the advantages of maritime transport is its versatility, since it adapts to any type of cargo. However, there are issues that must be taken into account when preparing our shipments:

Maritime transport Practical guide to shipment of goods

Type of container:

Most of the international transport of dry goods travels by container. Depending on the cargo, a type of container will be chosen and also whether it will occupy a full container (Full Container Load or FCL) or share space with goods from other exporters (Less Than Container or LCL).

Sudden abrupt movement:

Containers may experience sudden movements during handling and due to sea conditions, which may affect the stability of the cargo.

Temperature:

Temperature changes may occur during voyages, affecting the cargo.

Humidity and salinity:

Sea salt and humidity can cause the cargo to rust.

How to protect the goods for maritime transport?

Considering the peculiarities of maritime transport, it is time to analyze which packaging will help us to avoid damage or loss, and ensure a correct transport of the cargo from its origin to its destination.

 

  1. Fastening systems

For sensitive cargo, such as electronic equipment or chemical products, it is important to use securing systems to immobilize and secure the cargo inside the container.

In this regard, airbags are one of the most effective devices. These airbags are placed between the packages and prevent their movement. They are reusable and adapt to the irregularities of the cargo.

Maritime transport Practical guide to shipment of goods. Airbags
Maritime transport Practical guide to shipment of goods
Maritime transport Practical guide to shipment of goods

2. Insulating systems

For goods sensitive to humidity and salinity, such as metal parts without surface treatment or electrical equipment, insulating systems can be used to keep the atmosphere as neutral as possible during transport.

Among the isothermal insulating systems, heat-sealable bags stand out. They are a product widely used in packaging to prevent corrosion, especially in the case of metal and electronic devices. As a complement, dehydration systems such as desiccant salts are used to absorb moisture from the internal air volume. Moisture detectors will indicate whether the desiccant salts have reached their absorption capacity limit.

Maritime transport Practical guide to shipment of goods

We also manufacture customized heat sealable bags; you can see the video here:

 

Shrink-wrapped plastic is used for large-volume cargo or machinery. This type of plastic creates a protective film against adverse weather conditions (UV rays, rain, wind).

Maritime transport Practical guide to shipment of goods

3. Phytosanitary certification and sealing ISPM-15

In international transport, all packaging with wood as raw material must bear the corresponding marking, complying with the International Standard on Phytosanitary Measures ISPM-15. This regulation serves to prevent the spread of pests.

However, the certificate will depend on the geographical location to which the cargo is destined and whether it is required by the plant protection agency of the destination country. For example, for exports to European Union countries the standard is not mandatory, but in certain cases they may request the ISPM-15 marking.

Among wooden packaging, a very widespread solution for maritime shipments is the Clipping Crate ®. This is a reusable, economical, resistant box with an innovative design. It is equipped with a closing system using galvanized zinc clips or staples, which provide strength and flexibility. In this way, the box can be assembled and disassembled by a single person without the use of tools. A very useful system that facilitates customs inspection.

Maritime transport Practical guide to shipment of goods

If you have any questions about packaging and maritime transport of goods, do not hesitate to contact us.

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Safe transport of Lithium Batteries

Our cell phones, electronic devices and electric vehicles are powered by lithium batteries, a source of energy that is increasingly present in our daily lives. 

By their nature, lithium batteries are considered dangerous goods, and as such require approved packaging to avoid potential risks during handling and transport, both for people and the environment. As certified and approved manufacturers of this type of packaging, we want to show in this post the high importance of storage and transport of this type of product.

Lithium battery regulations

All dangerous goods must comply with specific regulations and warnings, and batteries are no exception.

First of all, lithium batteries contain high levels of electrical energy, which makes them prone to overcharging, extreme temperature, short circuit and mechanical damage. Therefore, improper use or storage could lead to fires or explosions such as the one that occurred on the Felicity Ace cargo ship in 2022, with more than 4,000 luxury cars on board.

Therefore, manufacturers and intermediaries must use approved packaging, which complies with the regulations of the chosen means of transport, whether by land, sea or air. That is:

  • Land:

European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road (ADR).

  • By Air:

International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Technical Instructions (TI) for the Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air and the International Air Transport Association (IATA) Dangerous Goods Regulations.

  • By Rail:

International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Rail (RID).

  • By sea:

International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code (IMDG).

lithium batteries

Packaging of lithium batteries

Secondly, there are a number of considerations to take into account when looking for solutions for handling and transporting batteries.

  • Heat resistance: use materials resistant to high temperatures.
  • Insulation: each battery must be individually insulated in its own compartment or container to avoid short circuits and shocks that could damage it.
  • Avoid contact with metals: lithium batteries should not come into contact with metal objects, as this could cause short circuits. They should be separated from each other by non-conductive insulators, such as polyethylene or plastic foams.
  • Hazard statements: use the correct labeling according to the applicable transport regulations.
  • Stability: by means of protection and fastening elements that guarantee their safety. The heavier the battery, the more support it needs.

Identification and labeling of packaging for lithium batteries

The packaging of lithium batteries must also be provided with labels and information warning of the risks of handling and transport:

The class 9 identification label, model 9A, is mandatory.

The UN number, which identifies the material from four digits. The identification codes for the different types of batteries are:

Lithium-ion batteries UN-3480.

Lithium-ion batteries UN-3481 included or packaged in a device.

Lithium metal batteries UN-3090.

Lithium metal batteries contained or packaged in a device UN-3091.

The homologation password indicating the material, country, year of manufacture and manufacturer’s code.

In conclusion, please consult here without obligation our approved solutions for the storage of lithium batteries, individual or integrated in equipment, for each mode of transport.

 

Also in our usual communication channels: info@360ecopackaging.com and on the phone (+34) 699 239 392

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How Just in Case logistics Works

Just in Case logistics (JIC) is an inventory management methodology that consists of having enough product in stock at all times.

Compared to Just-In-Time logistics, where products are manufactured and stored on demand, Just-In-Case logistics is based on having more inventory than necessary. In this way, the company ensures that products are always available to be able to cope with increased demand or any type of eventuality.

This “just in case” management will imply, among other things, a greater investment in warehousing.

In which sectors and companies is Just in case logistics used?

The Just in case methodology is usually used in sectors with volatile demand, and in particular, in those that manufacture products with a long shelf life. For example, pharmaceuticals, where it is important to have availability of medicines and where stock-outs can have serious consequences.

In recent years, however, due to pandemics, war and the materials crisis that have strained supply chains, companies have turned to this strategy in order to maintain supply in all sectors.

How Just in Case logistics Works

What are the advantages of just-in-case logistics for companies?

From an inventory management point of view, one of the main advantages of just-in-case logistics is that it allows for greater flexibility. That is, by having a larger volume of products than necessary, companies can respond quickly to changes in demand without fear of running out of stock.

On the other hand, although it may seem that companies incur higher costs with this type of stockpiling, the truth is that this method can generate considerable savings in the long term. 

First, by buying in larger volumes, they benefit from better prices. In addition, they have sufficient stock to ensure sales and respond to customers more efficiently than their competitors.

How Just in Case logistics Works

Just in case logistics packaging

More stock, more storage. For this reason, the unitization of cargo is one of the pillars of just-in-case logistics. Through palletizing, we manage to group and arrange the goods in the warehouse in higher loading units. In this way, we make maximum use of space.

How Just in Case logistics Works

In addition, since the products are palletized and sorted, they are kept in perfect condition while they remain in the warehouse for a long time, they can be located more quickly and the loading and unloading task is more agile.

Finally, the EPAL Euro pallet is a key element in this process. Thanks to its standard dimensions of 800 mm x 1,200 mm, the EPAL europallet can be adapted both to the dimensions of transport logistics (trucks and railroad wagons) and to those required in intralogistics (lifting, transfer on conveyor belts, handling of cardboard and wood packaging, etc.).

In short, packaging must meet the requirements of today’s supply chains. At 360 Eco Packaging we can help you find the best storage solution for your just-in-case operations.

How Just in Case logistics Works

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Types of warehouses and their characteristics

One of the objectives of logistics is the optimal use of the warehouse as well as the incoming and outgoing goods operations carried out in it.

There are many types of warehouses. Each has its own logistics requirements. The product they house, the location, functionality or handling technology are some of the criteria by which we can classify the different types of warehouses.

In a company there can be one or several types: raw materials, central, spare parts, etc. In this post we will focus on the most common types of warehouses, according to their location and logistic activity.

Warehouses by logistics activity

Production warehouse

This is the warehouse where the raw materials, parts or components required in the manufacturing processes are stored. The function of the production warehouse is to ensure that the manufacturing lines run without interruption, with no shortage of supplies. For this reason, many logistics supply centers are located close to factories.

Types of warehouses and their characteristics

Central warehouse

This is where finished products from one or more industrial processes are stored. It is usually located near the manufacturing site.

The central warehouse also acts as a distribution center, supplying other regional or local warehouses that carry out the final distribution to the consumer or point of sale. From the central warehouse, the product is conditioned for the next step in the distribution chain.

Types of warehouses and their characteristics

Distribution warehouse

The distribution or supply warehouse is responsible for receiving the goods from the production center and then sending them to the end customer. It usually covers a specific geographical area and is located close to the point of consumption.

Its purpose is to guarantee supply and meet product delivery times. It is a warehouse with a high turnover of goods.

Types of warehouses and their characteristics

Transit Warehouse

Occasionally, an interim storage point is required between the central and regional warehouse. The transit warehouse functions as an interim warehouse for goods, since its purpose is to expedite deliveries or to facilitate the grouping of goods to be shipped to the same destination.

Here the stock is not stored; the flow of receipts and dispatches is continuous. This type of warehouse is often used for e-commerce logistics.

Types of warehouses and their characteristics

Temporary warehouse

Used to store stock of products for seasonal consumption, in order to meet peaks in demand.

 

Other types of warehouses

We have reviewed the most common warehouses, but we can find other classifications of warehouse, according to:

  • The building:

Open-air or outdoor warehouse and covered or indoor warehouse.

  • The type of product:

Raw materials warehouse, semi-finished products and finished products warehouse, spare parts and/or accessories warehouse, and containers and packaging warehouse, where the packaging of the final products is kept.

  • Level of mechanization:

Conventional warehouses, with a low level of automation or the so-called intelligent warehouses, with a high degree of automation.

Types of warehouses and their characteristics

What type of warehouse does your company use?

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What is Just in Time logistics?

The world is constantly evolving. The changes that are taking place have an impact on supply chains. Industrial packaging manufacturers have to respond to the challenges posed by different logistical operations, however complex they may be, in times of greater or lesser uncertainty.

One of them is Just In Time manufacturing, which orients production to demand.

What is the Just in Time method?

The Just in Time production method is based on real orders. It consists of producing the exact amount of what is required, in the right place at the right time, without wasting system resources.

Just in Time logistics

Its origin comes from Japan. In the mid-twentieth century, large Japanese companies were looking for more efficient production systems, which in turn would allow them to reduce factory inventory. Toyota was the first company to apply the Just in Time method, under the name of Toyota Production System, in automobile manufacturing plants, with the aim of eliminating from the production process those elements that did not provide real value.

Since then, automotive companies, technology companies, fast food chains around the world and today, e-commerce companies use this model to make their processes more efficient, optimize costs and respond better and faster to customers.

Just in Time logistics

What are the advantages and disadvantages of the Just in Time method in logistics?

  • Zero defects: an error can cause delays and increase stocks.
  • Zero breakdowns: this implies scheduled maintenance of work tools.
  • Zero stocks: this generates storage and space costs.
  • Zero lead times: reducing production cycles reduces waiting times, equipment preparation and transit times.
  • Zero paperwork: reducing bureaucracy to a minimum.

Applying this method provides better management, greater flexibility and savings, but requires millimetric coordination in all the links that make up the supply chain.

Just in Time logistics

Advantages of JIT

  • Reduces inventory levels and costs associated with purchasing and warehousing, since only what is in demand is manufactured.
  • Minimizes losses, obsolete products, expired products or products that lose value when stored, by having a minimum stock.
  • Reduces time and unnecessary trips to locate the merchandise.
  • It favors a closer relationship with suppliers.

 

Disadvantages of JIT

  • Possible delays and lack of supplies.
  • Less access to special prices for small-scale purchases.
  • Increased costs when changing suppliers.
  • Scarce capacity to react to demand peaks.
Just in Time logistics

Packaging for Just in Time logistics

As with all other supplies, packaging in JIT operations must be available when it is needed. Companies specializing in this type of packaging must be able to offer packaging solutions that help simplify operations and speed up delivery times, that are easy to handle and help reduce storage costs.

This logistics requires ergonomic packaging, which allows assembly/disassembly in a very simple and safe way, folding solutions, which facilitate internal movements and save space, as well as customized packaging, which optimizes the logistics process to the maximum.

 

Contact us. At 360 Eco Packaging we can help you find the best packaging or storage solution for your Just in Time operations.

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Packing for moving

Nobody is aware of what they have until they have to move, that is why in this post we will talk about packing for moving. Moving our belongings from one place to another requires good planning, starting with choosing the optimal packaging so that the move is resolved quickly and smoothly.

Like any other type of shipment, each move will require different packaging, depending on the contents to be transported and the mode of transport.

Packing for moving

What is the most suitable packing for a move?

The packaging systems for the moving or furniture storage sector share the following characteristics:

Packing for moving

Types of packaging for moving

No two moves are the same. Moving a house is not the same as moving an office where electronic equipment and components are moved, much less a transoceanic move in a container.

Depending on the volume of material to be transported, wooden, cardboard or cardboard combined with wood packaging solutions can be used.

The most common are:

Cardboard boxes

Cardboard boxes are the most common type of packaging used in removals. As is logical, boxes of different sizes are used, depending on the needs. From a weight of 8 kilos upwards, it is advisable to use two-channel cardboard boxes, which offer greater resistance and protection.

Large-volume cardboard boxes, available with flaps or lids, are used to move large furniture and belongings.

Packing for moving

Folding wooden boxes

Plywood transport crates with lids are the most commonly used for transoceanic moves. This type of box is made of ISPM15 certified wood, so it is suitable for international shipments.

It is a reusable, stackable and collapsible box. It consists of a lid, a base with support and a very consistent central body. The anchorage of the pieces is by means of metallic tabs, which gives it great resistance.

Packing for moving

Fillings to protect the inside of the boxes

Just as important as choosing the most suitable box for a move is to have protection and padding aids to protect the contents inside.

Packing padding products immobilize objects to prevent them from suffering any impact during transportation and protect them from humidity or vibrations so that they arrive at their destination in perfect condition.

An economical solution to protect ceramic pieces, glassware or fragile products, as well as to fill the gaps left in boxes, is cardboard netting.

Cardboard corner protectors and foam profiles are essential to protect the edges on the inside and outside of the boxes.

In international moves, and especially in sea transport, inflatable bags or airbags are used as a complementary system in cargo lashing to fill the gaps in containers and prevent them from moving.

Packing for moving

At 360 Eco Packaging we can’t move your things, but we can provide you with the necessary packing material to make your move as safe as possible. Contact us.

Packing for moving

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How to Retract a Merchandise

The shrink wrapping of goods is a process used to secure and protect products during transport or prolonged storage.

This type of plastic creates a protective film capable of protecting items against adverse atmospheric conditions (UV rays, rain, wind…).

 

Materials needed for shrink wrapping

Below, we provide you with the necessary materials to shrink wrap effectively:

Cargo Shrink Wrap. How to Retract a Merchandise

Steps to follow to shrink-wrap goods

 

Prepare the load: the first step is to place the products in an organized way, making sure that they are well secured and that they do not move.

Cut the shrink wrap: next, cut the necessary amount of shrink wrap to completely cover the load. It is important that the shrink wrap is long enough to seal the bottom of the pallet.

Place the shrink wrap over the load: once the shrink wrap is cut, unfold it over the load and check that it is completely covered. If it is not well covered, adjust its position.

Seal the plastic at the bottom: with the help of the clamp, seal the plastic to the bottom of the load, so that it is taut and tight, to avoid wrinkles or air pockets.

Apply heat: in this step, repeat the same process as in the previous procedure, but this time it is done on the load. Again, it is important to avoid possible wrinkles or air pockets.

Finish shrink-wrapping: the last step is to check that there are no gaps or goods exposed to the elements. In case of an error, this piece should be covered with more plastic or with specific adhesive tape.

Cargo Shrink Wrap. How to Retract a Merchandise

By following these steps, you can confidently and effectively shrink-wrap your merchandise, ensuring its protection and security during transportation or storage.

Shrink-wrapping offers many benefits, such as safeguarding against dust, moisture, and tampering, while also providing a professional and presentable appearance. Remember to carefully select the appropriate shrink plastic and ensure a tight seal using a Shrink-Wrap Gun. With these techniques, you can retract your merchandise with ease and peace of mind.

Whether you’re a business owner looking to streamline your packaging process or an individual seeking to protect valuable items, mastering the art of shrink-wrapping is a valuable skill. With practice and attention to detail, you can ensure that your merchandise arrives in its intended condition, impressing customers and preserving the quality of your products.

So, embrace the advantages of shrink-wrapping and confidently package your merchandise with the knowledge and skills gained from this guide. Efficiently securing your goods will not only save you time and money but also enhance the overall customer experience.

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Mechanical Impact Detectors

There are two types of impact detectors: mechanical and electronic.

This time we will focus on mechanical devices, they are the most used and the most affordable due to their simple architecture. They are capable of detecting impacts on one or more axes and there are tared models with different g-force sensitivities.

Mechanical Impact Detectors

Therefore, we can classify these detectors as:

 

One-dimensional

Mechanical detectors that capture accelerations in only one axis (one direction and two directions).

These detectors are the most commonly used, there are sticker type (with adhesive) that are easily anchored to the packaging to be controlled.

Mechanical Impact Detectors

Their placement is generally:

  1. For a box with a side-to-side proportionality of approximately 1:1
Mechanical Impact Detectors

2. For a box with approximate side-to-side ratio > 2:1

Mechanical Impact Detectors

3. The heights “h” at which the indicator should be positioned may vary depending on the load, the g-force and the manufacturer.

Most of these indicators are activated by changing color (red) when the maximum set acceleration has been exceeded, it does not show a history of events, for that an electronic detector would be necessary.

 

Two-dimensional

 

Mechanical detectors that capture accelerations in two axes (two directions with their two senses).

These detectors are capable of detecting impacts in two directions and even show the direction, sense and modulus of the maximum force to which the load was subjected as shown in the above simulation (provided it is within the operating range of the detector).

Mechanical Impact Detectors

Their placement is generally done by means of four screws (per detector) and unlike the one-dimensional ones, their location in the case does not generally interfere in the operation.

There are two main types: magnetic and combined sphere-spring system.

Both are two-dimensional and allow the working accelerations g to be adjusted (depending on their type of construction).

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Desiccant salts, absorption capacity and normalization

Dehydrating or Desiccant salts, they are used more and more frequently for the packaging of cargoes, especially in maritime transports, but … are we using the right amount of desiccant salts? what is a DIN unit? do all desiccant salts absorb the same amount of moisture? In this post we will try to answer all these questions.

Dessicant Salts

To calculate the amount of DIN units of salts needed to ensure a “dry” environment, we will base ourselves on the DIN 55474 standard, which empirically defined as:

 

n = 1/a · ( V · b + m · c + A · e · D · t )

Where “n” is the number of DIN units, “a” the amount of water vapor absorbed per unit of salt, for 20 % RH a = 3 g; 40 % RH a = 6 g; 60 % RH a = 8 g, “V” the volume inside the packaging, “b” the humidity per unit volume of interior air, “m” weight in kilograms, “c” grams of humidity per kilogram of weight, “S” packaging surface in square meters, “e” correction factor, for 20 % RH e = 0.9, for 40 % RH e = 0.7 and finally for 60 % RH e = 0.6, “D” permeability in grams per square meter and finally “t” the storage time.

To summarize, in general, one DIN unit is equivalent to an absorption of 6g of water, to absorb these 6g of water approximately 30g of desiccant salts are necessary (depending on the type of salt and the conditions).

 

Thus we can take this table as a reference:

Desiccant salts

As we have already mentioned in this blog, there are many types of desiccant salts depending on their chemical composition, so we must always know their absorption capacity and the amount of DIN units per unit mass.

Dessicant Salts

As a conclusion we must assume to take as reference the DIN units and from this we will be able to calculate the grams of each salt that we need. Starting from these DIN units we will never make a mistake with the amount of salts needed.

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Desiccant Salts

Desiccant salts, also called dehydrating salts, are chemical compounds that absorb moisture and water in very different ratios, depending on the amount of desiccants and their chemical composition, and can regenerate if subjected to a temperature above 150ºC.

There are different types of desiccant, the most common are:

 

  • Silica gel

These are small solid pellets of silicon dioxide obtained from sodium silicate. Despite being a chemical compound, it is not toxic or flammable by itself, although one of its components is highly toxic to humans if ingested or in contact with it for a long time, as it could cause silicosis. This is cobalt chloride, which is used to determine the amount of moisture in the gel. In this way, it causes the gel to change color when wet, varying from blue (dry) to pink.

Desiccant Salts
  • Bentonite

Is a very fine-grained (colloidal) clay of the montmorillonite type containing bases and iron. The name derives from a deposit found at Fort Benton, USA. The particle size is less than 0.03% of the average grain size of kaolinite.

Desiccant Salts
  • Calcium chloride

In addition to its use in pharmaceuticals and food, this compound is used as a desiccant, given its moisture-absorbing qualities. It is less common than silica gel, although it does not contain toxic elements and has a higher degree of moisture absorption. The problem is that it is not advisable to use it in spaces that are not hermetically sealed, since it runs the risk of liquefying, with the consequent elimination of its absorption capacity.

Desiccant Salts

Measures

 

There are four different units for measuring desiccants. The most commonly used due to their standardization are grams, but we also find NFH, DIN units and MIL units.

These would be the equivalences between them, taking as a reference the most used measurements:

Equivalency table

We recommend the use of one half kilo bag (16 DIN units) of desiccant or dehydrating salts per cubic meter. As a guideline, we can indicate that for a 20 feet container it is advisable to use 20 bags of 1 kg. These data are estimates since, depending on the cargo to be transported (sensitivity to oxidation and/or corrosion mainly), the proportion of salts should be adjusted to maintain the relative humidity at the established rates.

 

Packaging

 

The desiccant can be purchased in bulk or packaged in breathable bags for use in containers or inside packaging.

The bags are made of non-woven textile so that moisture passes through them and can be picked up by the compound. Now, certain desiccant manufacturers have begun using another material called Tyvek, which is used primarily in home and building construction to prevent moisture.

This material is made of high-density polyethylene and nonwoven olefin fiber, so it is highly breathable and its uses are very diverse. Although it looks like paper, we must not forget that it is plastic when it comes to recycling.

As we mentioned at the beginning of this section, desiccant bags are frequently used in containers for shipping goods by sea.

Salt compounds and moisture can cause damage to the goods. For this reason, many containers come with special cables or rings for the placement of desiccants.

In this case, a hook or hooks, usually made of plastic or metal, are added to the bags to attach them to the walls of the container. If the container has no means of hanging the bag, many manufacturers incorporate a special adhesive to attach the bag directly to the inner side walls.

 

Other remarks

 

There is a chemical compound called dimethyl fumarate, DMF, which is also used as a desiccant.

Years ago the Finnish doctor Tapio Rantanen discovered that it can cause severe allergic reactions and large skin eczema, even in very small proportions, after the marketing of this product in sofas by a Chinese company, with the aim of preventing the furniture from deteriorating with humidity, resulting in several cases of affected people in several countries around the world, including Spain.

For this reason it is very important to make sure that the desiccant that we are going to use is free of this substance and that it has passed the pertinent controls that indicate it.

It is also common to find in the desiccant packages cards indicating the moisture content of the salts, thus warning if it is necessary to replace the package in case they no longer absorb water vapor.

Indicator cards

These cards work by changing color, in such a way that when their blue color disappears and turns to a light pink, as in the case of silica gel, it means that the desiccant salts have already exhausted their absorption capacity.

 

In conclusion, you will have to choose the type of desiccant that you believe convenient and in the right measure depending on the volume of the load and how it is packed. It is always advisable to use it, since humidity is present everywhere and in certain regions and countries more than in others, but above all it is an indispensable requirement for sea and river transport, combining it with other types of materials for adequate protection.

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